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Question 9#

The process of decoding information on mRNA to synthesize proteins is called:

A) Transcription
B) Translation
C) Replication
D) Signaling

Correct Answer is B

Comment:

DNA directs the synthesis of RNA; RNA in turn directs the synthesis of proteins. Proteins are variable-length polypeptide polymers composed of various combinations of 20 different amino acids and are the working molecules of the cell. The process of decoding information on mRNA to synthesize proteins is called translation (see Fig. below). Translation takes place in ribosomes composed of rRNA and ribosomal proteins. 

The flow of genetic i nformation from DNA to protein to cell functions. The process of transm ission of genetic information from DNA to RNA is called transcription, and the process of transmission from RNA to protein is called translation. Proteins are the essential controlling components for cell structure, cell signaling, and metabolism. Genomics and proteomics a e the study of the genetic composition of a living organism at the DNA and protein level, respectively. The study of the relationship between genes and their cellular functions is called functional genomics.