Dysregulation of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling is associated with all of the following EXCEPT:
Resistance to transforming growth factor-beta's (TGF-β) anticancer action is one hallmark of human cancer cells. TGF-β receptors and SMADs are identified as tumor suppressors. The TGF-β signaling circuit can be disrupted in a variety of ways and in different types of human tumors. Some lose TGF-β responsiveness through downregulation or mutations of their TGF-β receptors. The cytoplasmic SMAD4 protein, which transduces signals from ligand-activated TGF-β receptors to downstream targets, may be eliminated through mutation of its encoding gene. The locus encoding cell cycle inhibitor p 15INK4B may be deleted. Alternatively, the immediate downstream target of its actions, CDK4, may become unresponsive to the inhibitory actions of p15INK4B because of mutations that block p15INK4B binding. The resulting cyclin D/CDK4 complexes constitutively inactivate tumor suppressor pRb by hyperphosphorylation. Finally, functional pRb, the end target of this pathway, may be lost through mutation of its gene. For example, in pancreatic and colorectal cancers, 100% of cells derived from these cancers carry genetic defects in the TGF-β signaling pathway. Therefore, the antiproliferative pathway converging onto pRb and the cell division cycle is, in one way or another, disrupted in a majority of human cancer cells. Besides cancer, dysregulation ofTGF-β signaling also has been associated with other human diseases such as Marfan syndrome and thoracic aortic aneurysm.
The only gene expression detection method that provides information regarding mRNA size is:
Northern blotting refers to the technique of size fractionation of RNA in a gel and the transferring of an RNA sample to a solid support (membrane) in such a manner that the relative positions of the RNA molecules are maintained. The resulting membrane then is hybridized with a labeled probe complementary to the mRNA of interest. Signals generated from detection of the membrane can be used to determine the size and abundance of the target RNA. In principle, Northern blot hybridization is similar to Southern blot hybridization (and hence its name), with the exception that RNA, not DNA, is on the membrane. Although reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been used in many applications, Northern analysis is the only method that provides information regarding mRNA size and has remained a standard method for detection and quantitation of mRNA. The process of Northern hybridization involves several steps, as does Southern hybridization, including electrophoresis of RNA samples in an agarose-formaldehyde gel, transfer to a membrane support, and hybridization to a radioactively labeled DNA probe. Data from hybridization allow quantification of steady-state mRNA levels and, at the same time, provide information related to the presence, size, and integrity of discrete mRNA species. Thus, Northern blot analysis, also termed RNA gel blot analysis, commonly is used in molecular biology studies relating to gene expression.
All of the following are cell-surface receptors EXCEPT:
There are three major classes of cell-surface receptors: transmitter-gated ion channels, seven-transmembrane-G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), and enzyme-linked receptors. The superfamily of GPCRs is one of the largest families of proteins, representing over 800 genes of the human genome. Members of this superfamily share a characteristic seven-transmembrane configuration. The ligands for these receptors are diverse and include hormones, chemokines, neurotransmitters, proteinases, inflammatory mediators, and even sensory signals such as odorants and photons. Most GPCRs signal through heterotrimeric G proteins, which are guanine nucleotide regulatory complexes. Thus the receptor serves as the receiver, the G protein serves as the transducer, and the enzyme serves as the effector arm. Enzyme-linked receptors possess an extracellular ligand-recognition domain and a cytosolic domain that either has intrinsic enzymatic activity or directly links with an enzyme. Structurally, these receptors usually have only one transmembrane-spanning domain. Of at least five forms of enzyme-linked receptors classified by the nature of the enzyme activity to which they are coupled, the growth factor receptors, such as tyrosine kinase receptor or serine/threonine kinase receptors, mediate diverse cellular events including cell growth, differentiation, metabolism, and survival!apoptosis. Dysregulation (particularly mutations) of these receptors is thought to underlie conditions of abnormal cellular proliferation in the context of cancer. The following sections will further review two examples of growth factor signaling pathways and their connection with human diseases.
The process of decoding information on mRNA to synthesize proteins is called:
DNA directs the synthesis of RNA; RNA in turn directs the synthesis of proteins. Proteins are variable-length polypeptide polymers composed of various combinations of 20 different amino acids and are the working molecules of the cell. The process of decoding information on mRNA to synthesize proteins is called translation (see Fig. below). Translation takes place in ribosomes composed of rRNA and ribosomal proteins.
The flow of genetic i nformation from DNA to protein to cell functions. The process of transm ission of genetic information from DNA to RNA is called transcription, and the process of transmission from RNA to protein is called translation. Proteins are the essential controlling components for cell structure, cell signaling, and metabolism. Genomics and proteomics a e the study of the genetic composition of a living organism at the DNA and protein level, respectively. The study of the relationship between genes and their cellular functions is called functional genomics.
The cell cycle period in which DNA is duplicated is:
The cell cycle and its control system. M is the mitosis phase, when the nucleus and the cytoplasm divide; S is the phase when DNA is duplicated; G1 is the gap between M and S; G2 is the gap between S and M. A complex of cyclin and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) controls specific events of each phase. Without cyclin, CDK is inactive. Different cyclin/ CDK complexes are shown around the cell cycle. A, B, D, and E stand for cyclin A, cyclin B, cyclin D, and cyclin E, respectively.
The cell cycle and its control system. M is the mitosis phase, when the nucleus and the cytoplasm divide; S is the phase when DNA is duplicated; G1 is the gap between M and S; G2 is the gap between S and M. A complex of cyclin and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) controls specific events of each phase. Without cyclin, CDK is inactive. Different cyclin/CDK complexes are shown around the cell cycle. A, B, D, and E stand for cyclin A. cyclin B, cyclin D, and cyclin E, respectively.
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