Regional anesthesia may be useful in patients with:
Regional anesthesia may be useful in patients with advanced liver disease, assuming coagulation status is acceptable. When general anesthesia is selected, administration of modest doses of volatile anesthetics with or without nitrous oxide or fentanyl often is recommended. Selection of nondepolarizing muscle relaxants should consider clearance mechanisms for these drugs. For example, patients with hepatic cirrhosis may be hypersensitive to mivacurium because of the lowered plasma cholinesterase activity. Perfusion to the liver is maintained by administering fluids (guided by filling pressures) and maintaining adequate systemic pressure and cardiac output.
P3 of the American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification system is which of the follow:
American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification system
During a preoperative physical examination, specific areas to investigate for the respiratory system include:
The physical examination is targeted primarily at the central nervous system (CNS), cardiovascular system, lungs, and upper airway. Specific areas to investigate are given in Table below.
Preoperative physical examination:
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