Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)

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Category: Emergency Medicine--->Environmental Emergencies
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Question 1# Print Question

Regarding the management of heatstroke, which ONE of the following is TRUE?

A. The end point of cooling techniques is a rectal temperature of 36–38°C
B. Benzodiazepine is an appropriate choice of drug to suppress shivering associated with some cooling techniques
C. Temperature should gradually be reduced over a few hours to reduce shivering
D. Evaporative cooling with ice-cold water is the preferred external cooling technique

Question 2# Print Question

Regarding heat-related illnesses, which ONE of the following is TRUE?

A. The main distinguishing factor between heat exhaustion and heatstroke is the degree of temperature elevation
B. The presence of profuse sweating excludes the diagnosis of heatstroke
C. Rhabdomyolysis is a common finding in heat exhaustion associated with exercise
D. Antipyretics have no role in the treatment of patients with heat stroke and may be deleterious

Question 3# Print Question

Regarding Osborne or J waves on the electrocardiogram (ECG) of a patient with severe hypothermia, which ONE of the following is TRUE?

A. Osborne waves are pathognomonic of hypothermia
B. They are best seen in the anterior precordial leads
C. Osborn waves consist of an extra deflection at the end of the QRS complex
D. The development of Osborn waves heralds ventricular fibrillation and is a poor prognostic sign

Question 4# Print Question

A 32-year-old male developed confusion and dizziness shortly after ascending from a scuba dive.

Which ONE of the following is TRUE?

A. The best position to manage him would be at 30–45 degrees with his head up to reduce intracranial pressure
B. Recompression in a hyperbaric chamber is indicated, even if symptoms resolve with normo-baric oxygen therapy
C. It is important to distinguish arterial gas embolism (AGE) from decompression sickness (DCS) as the management differs significantly
D. His symptoms can be explained by ‘nitrogen narcosis’ if the dive was at a depth >50 m

Question 5# Print Question

Regarding decompression illness, which ONE of the following is FALSE?

A. AGE usually occurs on ascent or soon after surfacing
B. Decompression sickness is mostly associated with prolonged exposure to depths >10 m
C. AGE can occur with ascent from very shallow depths <10 m
D. Boyle’s law best explains the uptake of inert gas into tissues when breathing compressed air at depth

Category: Emergency Medicine--->Environmental Emergencies
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