Each of the following is associated with pelvic fracture EXCEPT:
Pelvic fractures are indicative of high energy trauma and are associated with head, chest, abdominal, and urogenital injuries. Hemorrhage from pelvic trauma can be life-threatening and patients can present with hemodynamic instability, requiring significant fluid resuscitation, and blood transfusions. The bleeding that occurs is often due to injury to the venous plexus in the posterior pelvis, though it can also be due to a large vessel injury such as a gluteal artery. Other associated injuries are bladder and urethral injuries that manifest with bleeding from the urethral meatus or blood in the catheter and need to be assessed with a retrograde urethrogram. The pelvis is a ring structure made up of the sacrum and the two innominate bones that are held together by strong ligaments. Because it is a ring, displacement can only occur if the ring is disrupted in two places. Displaced sacral fractures and iliac wing fractures are treated with screws or plates, while pubic rami fractures can usually be managed nonoperatively.
Which of the following is associated with hip fracture?
Hip fractures are an extremely common injury seen in orthopedics and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. They most often occur in elderly patients after ground level falls, are much more common in women than men, and occur more commonly in patients with osteoporosis. Patients who suffer hip fractures are at increased risk for many complications, including deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, pneumonia, deconditioning, pressure sores, and even death, as the mortality rate in the first year following a hip fracture is around 25%. One of the most important reasons for performing surgery is to prevent these complications, and getting patients out of bed and walking as soon as possible diminishes their risk. Therefore, surgery is almost always the treatment of choice for hip fractures.
Chronic unremitting back pain suggests all of the following possibilities EXCEPT:
Back pain occurs in the majority of adults but is usually selflimited resolving in 1 to 2 weeks. Chronic unremitting back pain suggests the possibility of infection, malignancy, or metastatic disease.
Scoliosis curves are classified as any of the following possibilities EXCEPT:
Scoliotic curves are classified as congenital, degenerative, metabolic (mucopolysaccharidoses), neurogenic (cerebral palsy), and myogenic curves (muscular dystrophy). Idiopathic scoliosis is the most common form, and represents a spectrum of genetic disease.
Surgical management of arthritis includes all of the following EXCEPT:
© 2010-2030 Your Doctor - Dr.Khalil Al-Yousifi - Kuwait - Contact Us