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Category: Urology--->Renal Pathophysiology
Page: 3

Question 11# Print Question

Which of the following is FALSE regarding biochemical pathology of urine?

A. Tamm-Horsfall is the most abundant protein found in the urine and a potent inhibitor of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal growth and aggregation
B. Nephrocalcin strongly inhibits the growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals
C. Osteopontin has been shown to inhibit nucleation, growth and aggregation of calcium oxalate crystals
D. The inhibitory activity of magnesium is derived from its complexation with oxalate
E. Heparan sulfate interacts most strongly with calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals


Question 12# Print Question

Which of the following is FALSE regarding renal tubular acidosis (RTA)? 

A. In Type I RTA, there is failure of H+ secretion in the distal nephron
B. Type I RTA is associated with hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis with a high urinary pH and persistently low HCO3
C. Type I patients do not have a tendency to develop stones
D. Type I RTA may be associated with chronic ureteric obstruction, autoimmune thyroiditis and toxic nephropathy
E. The medical treatment of RTA aims to alkalinise the urine with sodium bicarbonate


Question 13# Print Question

Which of the following agents do NOT have a vasoconstrictor effect on renal artery?

A. Angiotensin II
B. Vasopressin
C. Endothelin
D. Atrial natriuretic peptide
E. Serotonin/bradykinin


Question 14# Print Question

Which of the following factors do NOT stimulate the release of ADH?

A. Stress
B. Hyperosmolality
C. Hypervolemia
D. Hypoglycemia
E. Pregnancy


Question 15# Print Question

The following are common causes of hyperkalemia EXCEPT for:

A. Renal failure
B. Drugs including digoxin, angiotensinconverting enzyme [ACE] inhibitors
C. Chronic acidosis
D. TUR syndrome
E. Hypoaldosteronism




Category: Urology--->Renal Pathophysiology
Page: 3 of 4